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Glossary (Q - Z)



A protective mechanism that modifies an individual’s response to risk; as the tendency to spring back, rebound, or recoil; and as a child’s ability to succeed contrary to predictions

A person with exceptional ability in a specific skill, often artistic, mathematical or musical, who seems intuitively to 'know' but is unaware of thinking strategies
Self concept is one’s perception of himself/herself that is formed through life experience, and is both multifaceted and hierarchical
Sensory Integration Disorder (SID)
A neurological disorder that results from the brain's inability to integrate certain information received from the body's five basic sensory systems. These sensory systems are responsible for detecting sights, sounds, smell, tastes, temperatures, pain, and the position and movements of the body. The brain then forms a combined picture of this information in order for the body to make sense of its surroundings and react to them appropriately. The ongoing relationship between behavior and brain functioning is called sensory integration (SI)
Sensory Processing Disorder
Please see ‘Sensory Integration Disorder’
Social competence
Social competence is the broader term used to describe a child's social effectiveness. It defines a child's ability to establish and maintain high quality and mutually satisfying relationships and to avoid negative treatment or victimisation from others through social, emotional, and cognitive skills and behaviours.
Social coping skills
The knowledge of and ability to use a variety of social behaviours that are appropriate to a given interpersonal situation and that are pleasing to others in each situation.
Social emotional learning (SEL)
SEL refers to the set of knowledge, skills and attitudes students ought to have in these broad areas: self awareness, self management, social awareness, positive relationship management and responsible decision making.

Telescoping Curricula
Allowing a student or, preferably, a group of students of the same age - to complete the school's curriculum of several years in less time, thereby allowing more time for enrichment activities and projects that better suit the interests, needs, and readiness levels of gifted students
Tiered Tasks
In a mixed ability classroom, a teacher uses varied levels of activities to ensure that students explore ideas at a level that builds on their prior knowledge and prompts continued growth
Fixed groups of students that are rigidly maintained over time. Tracked students have few opportunities to move into higher-level groups despite increased performance. Tracking is not synonymous with grouping (e.g. Ability Grouping, Flexible Grouping) and is not endorsed by most gifted education advocates
Refers to when students move to the next stage of their education, the most common of which is the move from primary to secondary school, though there may also be other transition points
Describes students that are both gifted and have concurrent learning disabilities, such as dyslexia or dysgraphia

A term used to describe the discrepancy between a student's performance and their potential, or ability to perform at a much higher level

It refers to a well-documented strategy that helps promote the affective development of gifted learners. Through discussing the characters or the issues related to the videos, the gifted learners, as onlookers, can release their suppressed emotions and think about their own problems and solutions through watching the story of the characters. At the same time, they can understand how other people think when faced with the same situation and then apply their problem solving skills accordingly.
Visual thinker
A visual thinker uses visualisation techniques to think, such as colours, drawings, spatial arrangement, etc.




Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) A term developed by Russian child psychologist Lev Vygotsky to describe the distance between the actual developmental level of a child as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers