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Glossary (I - P)


I J K L M N O P


I
Identification
The selecting and labelling process. Requirements to be identified as gifted may vary between schools and Education Jurisdictions but might include: test results, class observations, parent nomination, peer nomination, diagnostic assessment. There is no universally agreed methodology for identification
Independent study
A self-directed learning strategy where the teacher acts as guide or facilitator and the student plays a more active role in designing and managing his or her own learning
Intelligence
A general concept of cognitive ability to learn and understand concepts. Has been put into a measurable form as intelligence quotient: IQ. Debate revolves around the nature of intelligence as to whether it is an innate quality or something that is developed as a result of interacting with the environment. Many researchers believe that it is a combination of the two
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
A numerical representation of intelligence. IQ is derived from dividing mental age (result from an intelligence test) by the chronological age times 100. For example, someone 10 years old with an intellectual age of 13 would have an IQ of 130

J

K

L
Lateral Thinking
A popular term coined by Edward de Bono in the 1960s for the solution of problems through an indirect and creative approach.
Learning Disability
refer to a group of disorders that affect a broad range of academic and functional skills including the ability to speak, listen, read, write, spell, reason, organize information, and do math. The disorders are neurological in origin and reflect information processing
Levels of Giftedness
According to IQ measurements (WISC-IV) alone, the following labels are generally accepted:
- Bright - 115 and above;
- Gifted - 130 and above;
- Highly gifted - 145 and above;
- Exceptionally gifted - 160 and above;
- Profoundly gifted - 175 and above.
(Remark: The scoring system of other IQ Assessments may differ)

M
Mentoring
Mentoring is a dynamic shared relationship in which values, attitudes, passions, and traditions are passed from one person to another and internalized. Mentoring is achieved by linking the gifted student with an experienced person from the appropriate field of experience
Meta-cognition
Meta-cognition refers to thinking about thinking, knowing "what we know" and "what we don't know." The basic strategies include connecting new information to former knowledge, selecting thinking strategies deliberately, planning, monitoring, and evaluating one’s thinking processes
Motor Skills
Refers to a learned series of physical movements that combine to produce a smooth, efficient action
Multiple Intelligences (MI)
Developed in 1983 by Dr. Howard Gardner, the theory of multiple intelligences suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited. Instead, Dr. Gardner proposed eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults

N
Nomination
A referral process for consideration of a student for a specialized or categorical programme such as a gifted programme or one of its options
Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NLD/NVLD)
Refers to a developmental or learning disorder with manifestations in somatosensory and motor functions, visuospatial and visuoconstructive functions, arithmetic, social cognition, and inferential reasoning

O
Over-excitabilities
A term to describe excessive response to stimuli in five psychic domains (psychomotor, sensual, intellectual, imaginational and emotional) which may occur singly or in combination.

P
Perfectionism
The desire to execute tasks flawlessly
Permanence
One of the three explanatory styles. When faced with an unfortunate event, people with this explanatory style think that the causes of the event which are thought to persist forever are always going to recur and its effects across time
Personalisation
One of the three explanatory styles. When faced with an unfortunate event, people with this explanatory style tends to put the blame on themselves (internal) rather than other people or circumstances (external)
Pervasiveness
One of the three explanatory styles. When faced with an unfortunate event, people with this explanatory style think that the causes of the events which are thought to be more global than specific and its effects across many different situations in life
Phenomenological
The science of phenomena as distinct from that of the nature of being. It is an approach that concentrates on the study of consciousness and the objects of direct experience
Portfolio Assessment
A collection of student products used to measure student progress and achievement. This practice allows students to demonstrate a wide variety of abilities and talents that traditionally are not measured well by standardized tests. Material in a portfolio may be student selected
Precocity
Development significantly earlier than normal. Most gifted children show precocious intelligence, but not all who develop skills early are gifted: they may reach a plateau, allowing those of average ability to catch up
Prodigy
A child (usually under age 10) who is able to perform at an adult level in a specific skill. Unlike savants, prodigies often have high intelligence and are aware of their thinking strategies
Profiling
Accumulating information, both formative (mid-way) and summative (end results), on a student to ensure a correct record is kept of his/her progress. Used to inform appropriate programming for the student
Provisions
These refer to differentiated/enriched curriculum, grade/subject skipping, dual enrolment, mentorship, off-site programmes to cater for the diverse needs of gifted learners.
Psychological Assessment
A process that involves the integration of information from multiple sources such as intelligence testing, personality profiles, and information about social and emotional maturity and adjustment. This assessment provides information about a student when compared to others of the same age.
Psychopathology
A term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress, or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment, such as abnormal, maladaptive behavior or mental activity
Pull-out Programme
A part-time special education Programme that takes like-ability learners out of the mainstream class for specific instruction. Many primary gifted Programme are once a week, pull-out, enrichment activities